The ServerHub Blog

We are a skilled group of Internet Nerds, with a wild passion for bettering the internet. Here we share our thoughts, ideas, aspirations, and even challenges of running a global platform.

A Comprehensive Guide on How to Install, Set Up, and Configure a Git Server


A Comprehensive Guide on How to Install, Set Up, and Configure a Git Server
Git is a distributed version control system that tracks changes in any set of computer files and allows multiple developers working on the same project to collaborate and manage their code. In this article, we will discuss what a Git server is, and what it is used for. We’ll also discuss the requirements for installing a Git server, and the procedures for installing, configuring, and setting up a Git server.

What is a Git Server?

A Git server is a central repository that stores and manages Git repositories. It allows multiple users to collaborate on projects by providing a common location for storing code, tracking changes, and managing versions. Unlike individual developers’ local repositories which are private and isolated, a Git server acts as a shared hub where developers can push their changes and pull changes from other users.

Requirements for Installing a Git Server

  • Server – You will need a server to host the Git server. This can be a physical server or a virtual private server (VPS).
  • Operating system – Linux is the most commonly used operating system (OS) for hosting a Git server. Some of the most popular Linux distributions include Ubuntu, CentOS, and Debian. However, many users also use Windows and macOS as their hosting platforms for a Git server.
  • Git – You will need to install Git on your server to set up a Git server. You also need to install Git server software such as GitLab, GitHub, or Bitbucket, to install on your server.
  • SSS access – You need to have secure shell (SSH) access to your server to configure and manage the Git server, and a domain name or IP address to access the server remotely.
  • Web server – You need to install a web server like Apache or Nginx on the server, which will be used to host the Git repositories.

How to Install a Git Server

To install a Git server, do the following steps:
1. Install the Git version control software on the server that is appropriate for your OS. You can get comprehensive instructions for downloading and installing Git according to your OS from the Git downloads page.
2. You need to create a user specifically for Git, which will be responsible for managing the Git server and its repositories. You can create a new user for Linux distributions by running the following command: sudo adduser git.
3. Create a bare repository directory that will contain all Git repositories. An example name for your directory can be /var/repo/.
4. Configure the webserver to Git repositories over HTTP(S). If you are using an Apache web server, follow the instructions in the Git Apache module installation.
5. Change the ownership of the bare repos directory to the Git user using the following command: sudo chown -R git: git /var/repo/.
6. Verify that the Git daemon is running with the following command: git daemon --base-path=/var/repo/ --export-all --enable=receive-pack.

Setting up a Git Server

  1. Create SSH keys for the server without a passphrase so you can do logins without entering passwords.
  2. Authorize SSH for the git user by copying the public key to /home/git/.ssh/authorized_keys.
  3. Create an empty Git repository in the path of the bare repo by running the following command: git init --bare example. git.
  4. Add default rewrite rules for commonly used hosting services like GitHub.
  5. Configure permissions and optionally enable access control with Gitolite or GitHub's authentication.
  6. Configure DNS records to expose the Git server URL over HTTPS/SSH publicly.
  7. Share the server clone URL with developers to start pushing code.

Configuring the Git Server

To configure the Git server, do the following steps:
1. Edit Git configuration files for global settings such as /etc/gitconfig and /etc/gitattributes.
2. Configure the Git hooks and receive-pack validation to enforce code quality.
3. Tune the HTTP/HTTPS server configurations for securing and caching purposes.
4. Set up automated backups and redundancy for high availability.
5. Monitor the logs and performance, and scale hardware as needed.
6. Implement the TLS/SSL encryption for HTTPS access to the repositories over the Internet.
7. Strengthen your server’s security with measures such as firewall rules and two-factor authentication rules.

Significance of Using a Git Server

To conclude, installing, configuring, and setting up a Git server is a critical aspect of collaborative software development. It provides a centralized location for managing and collaborating on code, ensuring version control, and providing backups in case of any data loss. Whether hosted on-premises or in the cloud, a properly configured Git server becomes the backbone of a successful and streamlined collaborative development, by following the steps outlined in this guide, you can successfully install, set up, and configure the Git server for your collaborative software development projects.

Dedicated Servers from ServerHub

If your team needs a dedicated server for hosting your Git server, ServerHub is the ideal hosting provider. We have been a leading server hosting solutions provider since 2002. With dedicated servers powered by Intel Xeon E processors starting at just $48 per month, ServerHub provides fast and reliable hosting solutions with 24/7/365 support. Contact us now to get the best, high-quality dedicated server hosting solutions that can fulfill the needs of your team’s collaboration projects.

List of References

  1. Setting Up the Server
  2. Installing Git
  3. The Entire Git Book
  4. Git Documentation
comments powered by Disqus